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Analysis of dynamic path loss based on the RSSI model for rupture location analysis in underground wireless sensor networks and its implications for Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS)

Pushan Kr Dutta, O.P. Mishra, M.K. Naskar


Sensors deployed in underground tunnels found that radio frequency signals suffer significant signal strength attenuation which can result in considerable variation of link quality on the receiving end. This study analyzes the received signal strength index (RSSI) based on  the development of a theoretical wireless sensor model for  data  collection by  enabling  sensors  to  determine  the  location  from  which  each  data packet is obtained. To improve positioning accuracy, the complex radio wave propagation environment requires the use of a voronoi cell to minimize signal attenuation. A relatively simple calculation is used to predict the intensity and perception range of the received wireless signals to measure the extent of signal reduction in the attenuating rock medium. Simulation results show that RSSI-based localization and wireless network lifetime and throughput measurements are more accurate when the node concept is applied to the self-locating rupture zones than the maximum likelihood estimation method. The proposed minimum energy relay routing technique based on beacon node chain deployment is found to help correct localization errors resulting from interference caused by the underground tunnel environment. The extent of localization and power of the sensor nodes are determined based on the beacon node chain deployment of tunnel wireless sensor networks. The algorithm accounts for the distance and the corresponding RSSI between adjacent beacon nodes to calculate the actual path loss parameter in the tunnel. The proposed model can serve as the theoretical basis for locating ruptures in underground wireless sensor network nodes, thus maximizing the monitoring range of large scale tectonic environments while minimizing equipment cost. We recommend that this model can be field tested through a series of experiments by researchers and engineers working in seismology, telecommunication, and information technology.


Underground node position, chain deployment, received signal strength indicator (RSSI), path loss parameter

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